The Materials Book

197 addition, a careful handling of organic waste should be adopted in order to counter current on-street accumulation that ends up in landfills. Two solutions could benefit Cairo: first, composting organic waste to provide fertilizer for surrounding agricultural fields and the increasing numbers of urban and roof top farms; second, transforming waste to energy within relevant power plants for eventual district-level distribution, advocating decentralized energy production and improved resilience of the energy network while reducing costs and capitalizing on local resources. The previous approaches and related interventions support demand-driven solutions (sometimes even utilizing informal systems) rather than the current supply side policies and programs. This is an essential approach that responds to the need for enhancing livability in Cairo and other cities of the Global South. It is essential to look into one’s locality, learn from it, and devise locally tailored solutions if sustainable development is ever to be realized. In addition, it is important to always create downstream value for resources to ensure an efficient circular metabolic system. 1 K. Schwab, ed., Insight Report: The Global Competitiveness Report 2017–2018 (Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2017). 2 M. Fischer-Kowalski, M. Swilling, E. U. von Weizsäcker, et al., Decoupling Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts from Economic Growth: A Report of the Working Group on Decoupling to the International Resource Panel (UNEP, 2011). 3 Y. Zhang, “Urban Metabolism: A Review of Research Methodologies,” Environmental Pollution 178 (2013): 463–73. 4 P. H. Brunner, “Reshaping Urban Metabolism,” Journal of Industrial Ecology 11 (February 2007): 11–13. 5 Sahar Attia and Heba Allah E. Khalil, “Urban Metabolism and Quality of Life in Informal Areas,” in Plan Together – Right Now – Overall: From Vision to Reality for Vibrant Cities and Regions; Proceedings of REAL CORP 2015, 20th International Conference on Urban Development, Regional Planning and Information Society , ed. M. Schrenk, V. V. Popovich, P. Zeile, et al. (Vienna: REAL CORP, 2015), 661–74. 6 FAO, Forest Products 2010–2014 (Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2014); Hari Goyal, “Paper & Paperboard Production & Consumption for Egypt,” 2015, Pulp & Paper Resources & Information Site, ; Nader Noureddin, “Egypt’s Food Needs,” Al-Ahram Weekly , November 24–30, 2016, http://weekly.; “Egypt,” Observatory of Economic Complexity, last accessed October 16, 2019, /profile/country/egy/. 7 A Sankey diagram shows the flow of a resource from one point to the other, where the width of the arrow represents the size of the resource at that stage.