Re-inventing Construction: Proceedings of the Holcim Forum for Sustainable Construction 2010

the gridshell structure to be stable. This required a certain flexibility of the materials, and so freshly cut wood was used, which was very flexible for a time, and then dried out to be more rigid. Once the form was set and the wood had dried in place, the whole construction was systematically tuned and tightened. (  images 220-221, p. 351 ) Whole Earth Catalog: The Whole Earth Catalog was a compendium of knowledge and innovation. Created by Stewart Brand in 1968, the catalog was published intermittently until 1998, with the most intensive years of publication and production from 1968– 1972. The catalog featured products intended for creative, ecologically sensitive, and sustainable lifestyles, although it did not offer these for direct sale, as would be typical of a standard catalog. As laid out by Brand, items were listed if they fit the following criteria: 1. Useful as a tool; 2. Relevant to independent education; 3. High quality or low cost; 4. Not already common knowledge; 5. Easily available by mail. The listed items were reviewed by the staff of the catalog and classified into a varying but non-typical structure of item classification. For example, the 1968 catalog used sections like “Nomadics” and “Shelter and Land Use” to organize content. Wiki : A wiki is a collection of linked web pages that can be easily added to or edited. Typically a wiki is used for information sets, though it can also be used for almost any web application., one of the most well-known wikis, is a crowdsource ed- ited and created encyclopedia, available worldwide in multiple languages. Sometimes a wiki can take the form of an online instruction  manual for multiple things, like the site Windcatcher: A windcatcher, also called badgir (Persian) or malqaf (Arabic), is a traditional Arab tower that was used as part of the ancient  Arab in- door cooling system and can still be found today. The wind tower is a  passive ventilation device utiliz- ing, among other things, the  Bernoulli effect and the principle of  thermal updraft (stacking effect). 75: The Zeer can also be called ‘pot-in-pot refrigerator’. The content of the Zeer is stored in an inner, impermeable pot. The outer pot is not sealed and therefore porous, and water can evaporate from its surface, thereby cooling the content of the Zeer. The space between the pots is filled with sand that is watered regularly. 353 Whole Earth Catalogue • Zeer Windcatchers can be used in three different ways. A windcatcher that is open only to the side that is facing the direction of prevailing winds ‘catches’ wind from outside and leads it into the building. For changing wind directions, the openings of the windcatcher are adjustable with directional ports. This method does not necessarily cool the interior but relies on a rate of air flow to provide a cooling effect. A windcatcher that is open only to the side that is facing against the direction of prevailing winds creates a suction ac- cording to the Bernoulli effect. Warm air is drawn out of the building and cooler air from shadowy courtyards or underground qanats is brought into the building. This technique can achieve cooling by tak- ing in air from cooler places. A windcatcher that is situated in windless regions can create passive venti- lation by thermal updraft: warm air rises through the windcatcher that functions like a chimney and makes cooler air from courtyards or  qanats flow into the building. (  image 211, p. 350 ) Yakhchal : A yakhchal is an ancient Persian type of refrigerator, based on the principle of insulation. During winter, ice was collected in nearby moun- tains and then brought into the yakhchal that had an underground space and walls at least 2m thick that were built of a special mortar consisting of egg whites, goats’ hair, ashes, and sand that made them impermeable to water and extremely heat-resis- tant. To add a cooling effect to the mere insulation effect,  yakhchals could be connected to the common  Arab indoor cooling system ,  windcatchers, and  qanats . (  image 217, p. 351 ) Zeer: The Zeer is an example of a refrigerator that uses no mechanics, only natural  evapora- tive cooling . It is constructed with a small clay pot inside a larger clay pot and wet sand between the two pots and cover. As the water evaporates it cools, and the inner pot becomes cool enough to prevent food spoilage, even in hot climates. It works most efficiently in environments with low ambi- ent humidity. Evaporative cooling for the refrig- eration of foodstuffs has been used for centuries. (  drawing 75; image 219, p. 351 ) 76: A Zollinger roof under consctruction. A Zollinger roof can be made step-by-step with a small number of workers.