Re-inventing Construction: Proceedings of the Holcim Forum for Sustainable Construction 2010

352 Vernacular Architecture • Weald and Downland Museum Workshop minimize carbon emissions by cultivating plants in proximity to consumers. However, the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of vertical farms have not yet been demonstrated. A number of scientists, architects, and local governments around the world have expressed interest in developing vertical farms or prototypes for actual use. (  image 212, p. 350 ) Wa Pan: A method of building in China that uses recycled parts of old buildings in new structures. This technique, in use for centuries, was recently brought into contemporary architectural discourse when it was used in the  Ningbo Historic Museum , in Ningbo, China, by the Amateur Architecture Studio. wa pan is similar to  Spolia , the recycling of orna- mental building elements. Wall House: The Wall House in Santiago de Chile by FAR Architects consists of four structural shells, each with different qualities and materials that corres- pond with use, climate, atmosphere, and structural needs. The innermost shell is a cast concrete struc- ture, designed as a wet space into which the bath- rooms and kitchen are integrated. The second shell is like a wooden shelf, used for storage functions. The third shell is the climatic shell of the building: made from highly insulating polycarbonate wall ele- ments for cool winter temperatures, it can be opened almost completely to the outside during the summer months. The outermost fourth shell is a tent-like membrane structure. It reflects about 70% of solar rays and also works as a mosquito net. The fourth shell is made from materials common to greenhouse construction. Each layer has a different spatial interval from the next layer, allowing for spaces to be dimensioned by use. They range from 45 cm to 4m. The cost of constructing the Wall House was low com- pared to other residential constructions because the materials were sourced directly from industrial uses. (  images 222-223, p. 351 ) Wattle and Daub: Wattle and daub is a building technique that combines  adobe (daub) with a structure made of wood or other natural materials (wattle). Typically, a woven lattice of wooden strips or leaves is covered with a mixture of clay, sand, and water. Wattle and daub has been used for many thou- sands of years but is still common, for example, in German “Fachwerkhaeuser” for its typical esthetics, or in South American  Paisa houses , for its earth- quake resistance. (  image 216, p. 350 ) Weald and Downland Museum Workshop: The Weald and Downland Museum Workshop is the workshop building of the Weald and Downland Museum, an open-air museum in Chichester, England. The ground floor of the building is storage for ex- hibition materials, and the upper floor is workshop space. Designed by Edward Cullinan Architects, the building has a roof made using a gridshell structure. Although the structure is a gridshell, the architects developed a unique construction method, not typi- cal of  gridshell construction. Usually gridshells are made to double curve, after assembly of a flat skeleton, from the ground up. However, this requires a great deal of power to deform the structure while also lifting it. Instead, Edward Cullinan Architects developed a method where the shell was constructed at a height of 7.5m, and then let down to conform to the desired shape, with the curvatures necessary for ideological approach is associated with calls for reduc- tions in greenhouse gas emissions caused by shipping and trucking foodstuffs from distant locations, and for a more responsible agricultural practice in keep- ing with seasonal conditions and local availability. Vernacular Architecture: The term vernacular archi- tecture is used to describe traditional, often regional construction techniques.  Vernacular architecture addresses local needs and circumstances and reflects the environmental and cultural context in which it exists. It is often low-tech but uses resources like en- ergy and available building material in a very smart, sustainable way. This can be explained by the fact that it has evolved over time. Vernacular architecture is a great source of inspiration for architects today because of its sustainability and adequacy regarding climatic conditions and use of material. Inspirational exam- ples include the  Arab indoor cooling system , the  igloo ,  sod and turf houses and the  Togu Na. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine: Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are wind turbines with a vertically oriented rotor. Unlike  horizontal axis turbines (HAWT) they do not have to be specifically placed in relationship to wind direction, and can operate at rela- tively low wind speeds. Generally, they do not gene- rate energy in such high quantities as a horizontal turbine but can be used in more flexible applications. (  drawing 74; image 215, p. 350 ) Vertical Farms : Vertical farms are a theoretical agricultural method consisting of farms located in high-rise urban buildings. Using greenhouse prac- tices and agricultural techniques such as  hydro- ponics and  aquaponics , these indoor city farms would allow crops to be grown year-round without the need for large land plots. The idea for vertical farms was proposed by Dickson Despommier, micro- biology and ecology professor at Columbia Univer- sity, who developed the concept to include multiple floors equipped with their own watering and nutrient monitoring systems. In theory, vertical farms could increase crop production, conserve resources, and 74: A simple version of a VAWT can be built from a halved beer barrel.