Rio de Janeiro Magé Duque de Caxias São Gonçalo Maricá Niterói Guapimirim Itaboraí SJ de Meriti Belford Roxo Nova Iguaçu Nilópolis Mesquita Municipal boundaries Hydrologic basins Flood-prone regions Marshland 1888 1930 1975 1994 2007 2016 on-grid pumps off-grid pumps water delivery, no sewage sewage untreated treatment centres inadequate treatment centres sewage exhausted to sea clean rivers polluted rivers urban areas forests 20,000 l/s human waste flows into Guanabara Bay At their source, rivers in Rio de Janeiro run clean with abundant wildlife, but by the time they reach Guanabara bay they are heavily polluted: carrying solid waste, sewage and microbes dangerous to the city’s ecosystem. 70% of the State of Rio, 16 million people, are not connected to an urban sewer network. INEA State Environmental Institute, Rio de Janeiro 6.5 mil. inhabitants living without sanitation The municipality has tried to address the water problem by expanding costly infrastructure, but it has bypassed informal and remote neighbourhoods. Even where it is implemented, the difficult maintenance of the system has rendered it ineffective. ICMS Ecológico 2016 SEA/CEPERJ Plumbing >30 Years Behind Traditional sewage treatment has failed to keep up with urban growth, particularly when it comes to servicing informal neighbourhoods. Installed at once, it reaches capacity quickly and cannot easily adapt. PDAM, DNIT, Câmara Metropolitana $2.5 billion ineffectively spent on cleaning the bay in the last 20 years Political boundaries do not map to hydrological basins, making responsibility for pollution a complex issue. Inhabitants have lost faith in such large-scale projects, and it’s difficult for actors from top-down and bottom up to come together to develop feasible solutions. “Despoluir Baía de Guanabara custaria R$ 20 bi e levaria 25 anos” Agência Brasil, 20 July 2016. $13.3 billion damage from the 2010 floods in Rio Urbanisation and deforestation have exacerbated flooding across the city, reducing retention capacity and creating large areas vulnerable to the effects of heavy rainfall: hundreds of fatalities, billions of dollars in damage, and even open sewage flowing into the street. “Perdas causadas pela chuva no Rio podem chegar a R$ 23,7 bi”, Terra, 8 April 2010. Off-grid systems can follow urban evolution A wetland is always working 100% Solution needs to address the problem at its source A strategy needs to bring people together Absorbtion capacity of a wetland is up to 30x its surface (rainfall - 30mm/hr) SYSTEMIC FAILURE SYSTEMIC SOLUTION PIONEER UPTAKE PILOT PROGRAMS CITY NORM Municipality on grid off grid Constructed wetlands for unserved population RIO DE JANEIRO 1,577,256 3,087,746 NILÓPOLIS 0 157,483 MESQUITA 50,513 117,863 SÃO JOÃO DE MERITI 91,675 366,701 BELFORD ROXO 91,866 367,466 NOVA IGUAÇU 2,363 233,905 DUQUE DE CAXIAS 23,008 743,916 MAGE 0 54,730 GUAPIMIRIM 0 39,796 ITABORAÍ 0 86,164 SÃO GONÇALO 29,970 969,029 NITERÓI 195,025 292,537 MARICÁ 0 40,058 GUANABARA BAY* 2,061,675 6,557,395 *portion of cities’ populations represented in map = wetland for 100,000 people (120,000 m 2 ) 6.5 million pop. $5.5 Billion 8km 2 Constructed wetlands for the currently unserved Municipality on grid off grid Constructed wetlands for unserved population RIO DE JANEIRO 1,577,256 3,087,746 NILÓPOLIS 0 157,483 MESQUITA 50,513 117,863 SÃO JOÃO DE MERITI 91,675 366,701 BELFORD ROXO 91,866 367,466 NOVA IGUAÇU 2,363 233,905 DUQUE DE CAXIAS 23,008 743,916 MAGE 0 54,730 GUAPIMIRIM 0 39,796 ITABORAÍ 0 86,164 SÃO GONÇALO 29,970 969,029 NITERÓI 195,025 292,537 MARICÁ 0 40,058 GUANABARA BAY* 2,061,675 6,557,395 *portion of cities’ populations represented in map = wetland for 100,000 people (120,000 m 2 ) 6.5 million pop. $5.5 Billion 8km 2 Constructed wetlands for the currently unserved Sources: (1) UN World Water Development Report 2017; (2) worldmapper/SASI, 2006 Rivers with severe pollution from sewage 1 % of population without sustainable access to improved sanitation 2 100% 0 WATER SCARCITY IMPACT OVER TIME A GLOBAL CHALLENGE constructed wetlands for the currently unserved 6.5 million pop. $5.5 billion 0 1 2 5 10 km Over 80% of wastewater is released to the environment without adequate treatment Current centralised sewage system ISOTROPIC CITY fractal, expandable, incorporates nature and solves problems locally CONTAINED CITY depends on relationship with hinterlands TOP-DOWN centralised, inbalanaced BOTTOM-UP incedental, disconnected DUAL decentralised, resilient 1.2 m 2 constructed wetland 0.3 m 2 treatment station 2.3 m underground pipes per person + per person OR current centralised system decentralised wetland system 53% H 2 O E V A P O R A T I O N WATER STORAGE Clean, non-potable water WATER CYCLE R E C Y C L E R A I N GUANDU TREATMENT CENTRE R I O G U A ND U MU N ICIP A L W A T E R C E D A E HOUSE 120I/day/person PRIMARY TANK / PRIMARY TREATMENT Solids are dissolved over time and transformed into mixed organic compounds in water CONSTRUCTED WETLAND / SECONDARY TREATMENT Natural sewage treatment system treating polluted water by filtering effluent through sand and plant roots Flora Fauna Gardens RAINWATER HARVESTING M O U N T A I N S P R I N G PURIFICATION OF WATER= OXIGENATION OF WATER ALIMENTO CARIOCA R$ ENERGIA CARIOCA R$ LIXO CARIOCA R$ ÁGUA CARIOCA Resource (water) Value Knowledge R$ Closing the loop on a local scale Decentralised system Embedding infrastructure in the city City + Nature = Scalable symbiotic unit Off-grid as a coherent, integrated system Good Ecology = Good Economy Wetlands are less disruptive, more cost-effective, beautiful and enhance urban ecology Applicable to other sectors Visibility Enables interaction, makes investment attractive ø 1385 km All water on Earth ø 273 km All Fresh water in the ground, lakes, swamps, rivers ø 56.2 km Fresh-water in lakes and rivers Guanabara Bay urban areas with existing sewage treatment intervention zones: urban areas without sewage treatment favelas zones with existing sewage system polluting the sea forests rivers opportunities for constructed wetlands Project Credits Project: OOZE ARCHITECTS & URBANISTS Directors: Eva Pfannes & Sylvain Hartenberg Team: Angelo Renna, Paula Martinez Sancho, Shilesh Hariharam, Verena Balz, Mario Campanella, Ron Steiner, Dirk Gonzalez, Sacha Mollaret, Kate Unsworth, Jesse Honsa Film: Eva Pfannes, Sylvain Hartenberg, Adolfo Estrada Vargas, Florian de Visser, Mario Campanella Water Engineers: Kilian Water, Maribel Zapater Partners: Photographers: Rio de Janeiro Municipality Studio-X, Rio de Janeiro (Pedro Rivera, Raul Correa- Smith, Gabriela Werneck) Sítio Roberto Burle Marx / IPHAN Instituto Perreira Passos (IPP) 11th Architecture Biennale São Paulo (Marcos Rosa, André Goldman) SABESP Communities of Formiga, Salgueiro, Maré, Rio das Pedras and Sapé Ooze, Raul A. C. Smith, Rodrigo d’Avila, Gustavo Pacheco, Fotocoletivo DiCampana, Flagrante Financial Support: Creative Industries Fund NL, Dutch Consulate of Rio de Janeiro, Dutch Consulate of São Paulo, SABESP, 11th Architecture Biennale São Paulo O CORPO HUMANO = 64% ÁGUA BODY = 64% WATER LUNG PURIFICATION = OXYGENATION rio limpo sewage septic tank polluted river rain water harvesting recycling constructed wetland clean water storage non potable municipal water CEDAE school XS 1 SCHOOL BUILDING 900 CHILDREN CIEP SCHOOL, MARÉ clean water storage non potable clean river recycling rain water harvesting water community school water pavillion with open roof + river platform = social & pedagogical space septic tank constructed wetland M 600 HOUSES 2700 INHABITANTS FAVELA MORRO DA FORMIGA 70% 53% septic tank polluted river rain water harvesting mountain spring water recycling clean water non potable constructed wetland clean water storage non potable municipal water CEDAE XXS 1 HOUSE 4 INHABITANTS septic tank clean water non potable water community constructed wetland cleaned lagoon municipal water CEDAE L 20.000 HOUSES 90.000 INHABITANTS FAVELA RIO DAS PEDRAS S 150 HOUSES 750 INHABITANTS FAVELA MORRO DO SALGUEIRO 70% 53% 53% caxa da água polluted river rain water harvesting mountain spring water water cluster recycling clean water storage non potable clean water discharge constructed wetland municipal water CEDAE septic tank Fractal approach to implementation Incremental methodology from pilot to neighbourhood ÁGUA CARIOCA URBAN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM an ongoing project that addresses basic sanitation and effective environmental improvement in Rio de Janeiro Água Carioca fundamentally turns around how we deal with water and wastewater in urban areas. Instead of having to collect and transport it from each house to a treatment plant outside the city, the wastewater is cleaned and reused directly where it is produced. Residents engage in the process of implementing constructed wetlands into their community, creating a healthy, beautiful and clean habitat. This essential shift from a centralised to a decentralised model also establishes a closer relationship with the natural world. The key is concurrent integration of spatial, social, technical and ecological aspects into a systemic and scalable infrastructural design. The localised nature of the project inspired the name, Água Carioca, a reference to the River Carioca that gives the people of Rio their nickname: “Cariocas”.