The Materials Book

400 Editors: Ilka Ruby & Andreas Ruby Design: Something Fantastic Art Department (Elena Schütz, Julian Schubert, Leonard Streich with Maria Weiss) Associate Editor: Max Bach Copyediting: Peter Brooks-Sharpe, Jacqueline Taylor Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek. Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographic data is available online at . This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in other ways, and storage in data banks. For any kind of use, permission of the copyright holder must be obtained. © 2020 Ruby Press, Berlin © 2020 LafargeHolcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction, Zurich © The contributors for their texts and images Every effort has been made by the authors and the publishers to acknowledge all sources and copyright holders. In the event of any copyright holder being inadvertently omitted, please contact the publishers directly. Please see pages 398–99 for specific image credits. Colophon Fonts: Univers, Super GT, Times New Roman, Arial Papers: Burano, Pure Offset, Munken Cream, Munken Polar Printed in Italy ISBN 978-3-944074-32-0