The Materials Book

256 consumption by 40 percent. Water use is minimized via water-conserving faucets and showers, and all of the building’s water is recycled. India produces more than 700 million tons of construction and demolition (C&D) waste annually, most of which is either dumped or used as landfill. TARA has worked with private and government agencies to develop ways to utilize the waste in construction, which can reduce consumption of increasingly scarce natural resources such as sand and aggregate. TARA has demonstrated that efficient management of this rubble can spawn profitable recycling programs, and these have been adopted in public- private partnerships in five cities across India. The waste is segregated, processed, and utilized in creating new building materials, demonstrating the viability of a circular economy at both large and small scales. While reuse and recycling are often dismissed as a pipe dream, they can be profitable even as they preserve our precious natural resources. TARA’s own headquarters in New Delhi illustrates these methods and sets an example of energy-efficient construction. Built in 2009, the building is one of the first in India that aims at zero emissions by balancing technology with tradition. The building has a ferrocement shell and shallow masonry domes, which significantly reduces the use of steel. The building’s bricks were made of earth excavated from the site and fly ash from local thermal power plants as well as recycled material from the structure it replaced. Its passive heating and cooling systems can reduce its energy