186 6 M. Kamei, K. Kurisu, and K. Hanaki, “Evaluation of Long-Term Urban Transitions in a Megacity’s Building Sector Based on Alternative Socioeconomic Pathways,” Sustainable Cities and Society 47 (May 2019), article 101366. 7 S. Weidner, C. Kelleter, P. Sternberg, W. Haase, F. Geiger, T. Burghardt, C. Honold, J. Wagner, M. Boehm , M. Bischoff, O. Sawodny, and H. Binz, “The Implementation of Adaptive Elements into an Experimental High-Rise Building,” Steel Construction 11, no. 2 (2018): 109–17. 8 Y. Zhang, K. Soga, and R. Choudhary, “Shallow Geothermal Energy Application with GSHPs at City Scale: Study on the City of Westminster,” Géotechnique Letters 4 (2014): 125–31. residents warm, 8 or to build energy- efficient subterranean urban farms. Looking Ahead There is a fundamental interdependence between the natural and the built environments. Unfortunately, as Christoph Küffer writes in his contribution to this book, most developments in the built environment actually worsen environmental and social conditions rather than improving them. While crises and emergencies can spur rapid change, traditional innovation cycles — starting with an idea, going through multiple tests, then prototypes and tests, and finally market release — are simply too slow. We need to support ecological restoration and reconnect the components of natural systems. New ideas that promote a better future are catalysts when they raise a question; they turn into an answer only when they become part of everyday life, embraced by the community, designers, and policymakers. 1 Donella Meadows, Indicators and Information Systems for Sustainable Development: A Report to the Balaton Group (Hartland Four Corners, VT: The Sustainability Institute, 1998). 2 See, for instance, https://metabolismofcities.org/. 3 Chrisna Du Plessis, “Chaos and Resilience,” in The EcoEdge: Urgent Design Challenges in Building Sustainable Cities , ed. Esther Charlesworth and Rob Adams (London: Routledge, 2013). 4 Root studio, Juchitán (Oaxaca, Mexico), http://tallercapital.mx/. 5 Working for Water Program, Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), South Africa.