The Materials Book

145 Cultivated Building Materials: The Fourth Industrial Revolution? Dirk Hebel, Felix Heisel The field of sustainable construction requires a holistic approach. Sociocultural, economic, ecological, functional, and aesthetic factors are considered and understood as equivalent and interacting with one another. This complexity prohibits simplified prescriptions and responses or general applications. Rather, sustainable construction strives to develop an unbiased, critical view and, as a result, an attitude toward the task based on basic knowledge and one’s own experimental actions. Therefore, the twenty-first century needs to face a radical paradigm shift in how we produce materials for the construction of our habitat. While the first industrial revolution resulted in a conversion from regenerative (agrarian) to non- regenerative material sources (mines), our era may experience the reverse: a shift toward cultivating, breeding, raising, farming, or growing future resources that goes hand in hand with a reorientation of biological production methods and goals. Addressing the industrialization of building materials, it is obvious that the term “industrialization” describes different periods in history. The first industrial revolution, which began in the eighteenth century and reached its climax in the nineteenth century, was based on the invention of the steam engine to mechanize production. Starting at the end of the nineteenth century, the second industrial revolution is described by the use of electrical power engines to initiate mass production. The third industrial revolution took