Forum 2016 - Infrastructure Space - Detroit (Ruby Press)
93 92 ce and security are, or can be made available, the well-being of the third nation outweighs the profitability of the border-industrial complex. Restore the land . The occupied zo- nes near the line often resemble sites of military occupation or natural disas- ter. The cost of cleaning up this mess should be charged to past and present contractors, and be incorporated into borderland risk assessment and infra- structure planning. Invest in Economic Health and Community Development The prosperity and well-being of third-nation communities on both sides are vital to our binational economies. Every dollar spent on risk infrastructure along the border should be measured alongside the opportunities foregone. 1. Complete references and citations for this essay are available in Michael Dear, Why Walls Won’t Work: Repairing the US-Me- xico Divide (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), ch. 1, 7, 11. Quick access to many of my arguments and sources is available at: http://blogs.berkeley . edu/2015/09/16/dousing-the-fla- mes-of-immigration-rhetoric-with-facts/; http://blogs.berkeley.edu/2015/10/06/ beware-of-the-growing-us-mexico-bor- der-industrial-complex/; http://blogs. berkeley.edu/2015/11/04/an-eight-point- plan-to-repair-the-u-s-mexico-border/. 2. Henry H. Willis, Joel B. Predd, Paul K. Da- vis, and Wayne P. Brown, “Measuring the Effectiveness of Border Security between Ports-of-Entry,” (RAND Technical Report, 2010, RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA). 3. Jack K. Riley, “Strategic Planning for Border Security” (testimony before the Committee on Science, Space, and Tech- nology, Subcommittee on Research and Technology, Subcommittee on Oversight, United States House of Representatives, July 31, 2014), 2. 4. A concise discussion of this issue is pro- vided by Lisa Seghetti, “Border Security: Immigration Enforcement between Ports of Entry” (Washington DC: Congressional Research Service 7-5700, December 31, 2014.) http://trac.syr.edu/immigration/ library/P10204.pdf 5. Todd Miller, Border Patrol Nation (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2014), 211. 6. Tom Barry, Border Wars (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011), 6–7. Image Sources: Jacobo Blanco, Vistas de los monumentos a lo largo de la línea divisoria entre México y los Estados Unidos de El Paso al Pacífico, 1901. Fig. 11: Artwork by Dreamline Cartography. Fig. 11: Monument number 1 between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, noteworthy for the absence of fences or walls. From the left, panel 1 shows the Casa de Adobe, the restored headquarters of Mexican Revolution leader Francisco Madero; panel 2, a bust of Madero; panel 3, a berm topped with a sign marking the international boundary; and panel 4, the ancient monument. What if we conceived of the city not as a centralized spectacle that is constantly accumulating and instead thought of it as being a kinetic entity, always in flux? Rahul Mehrotra and Felipe Vera explain their notion of “ephemeral urbanism” and what we can learn from the elastic, adaptable infrastructure of the temporary city of Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, India. Looking at the contemporary landsca- pe of cities, one could argue that today’s urbanism seems to be suspen- ded in a constant negotiation between two contrasting conditions. The first derives from the assumption that development is about accumulation. This generates a common anxiety that then invests capital into cities, produ- cing what can be called a “hyper-city.” In this traditional context, architecture and urban design emerge as an al- most purely material exercise, often disconnected from the social impli- cations of urbanism. Architecture, as the basic unit of urbanism, seems to be obsessed with the idea of the city as the centralizing spectacle driven by the inherent impatience of capital. Currently this is the most predominant disciplinary focus—and it extends to infrastructure. After all, the very notion of “sustainability” literally translates to the idea of perpetuating the current state of things. To “sustain” suggests the ability to maintain. The second condition in debates about urbanism is derived from the idea that there is a more elastic, and thus weaker, expression of the urban, referred to as a “kinetic city.” 1 This completely different observation of urbanity considers the city in a state of constant flux. This continuous, kinetic quality is characterized by physical transformations that shift the very fab- ric of the typical notions of accumulati- on and its relationship to development. Furthermore, the kinetic city cannot be understood as a two-dimensional entity. Instead, it is a multifaceted, three-dimensional conglomeration of incremental development, perceived as if in motion. In a way, the kinetic city is home to an emergent population that is excluded from normative transnatio- nal networks of commerce and civil interaction. This is not to say that the kinetic city is merely for the impoveris- hed. Rather, it is a temporal articulati- on and occupation of space, creating a richer sensibility of spatial reasoning that includes formerly unimagined uses in dense urban space. Therefore, as the proposed alternative conceptu- alization for elasticity in urbanism, the kinetic-city approach attempts to de- scribe a surrogate city without using The Ephemeral Metropolis: The Kumbh Mela and Other Temporary Cities Rahul Mehrotra and Felipe Vera What if we conceived of the city not as a centralized spectacle that is constantly accumulating and instead thought of it as being a kinetic entity, always in flux? Rahul Mehrotr and Felipe Vera explain their notion of “ephemeral urbanism” and what we can learn from the elastic, adaptable infrastructure of the temporary city of Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, India.