Forum 2016 - Infrastructure Space - Detroit (Ruby Press)
337 336 ing lived for long periods of time in foreign countries with customs very different from what I am used to, I’ve seen new habits entrench themselves in my own life. Watching this process closely has helped me understand (among other things) why and how racial segregation can persist de facto when it is no longer de jure . We conceal infrastructure phys- ically when we can, but it becomes invisible in other ways as well. One of those is through the acquisition of habits, skills, and social norms. These should be seen as vital components of infrastructure—they help explain how infrastructures work and why they endure. And habits, as we all know, die hard. 1. Paul N. Edwards, Steven J. Jackson, Geoffrey C. Bowker, and Cory P. Knobel, Understanding Infrastructure: Dynamics, Tensions, and Design (Ann Arbor, MI: Deep Blue, 2007). 2. Gary Toth, “Where the Sidewalk Doesn’t End: What Shared Space Has to Share,” Project for Public Spaces , 2009, http:// www.pps.org/reference/shared-space/. 3. Matt Richtel and Connor Dougherty, “Google’s Driverless Cars Run into Prob- lem: Cars with Drivers,” New York Times , September 2, 2015. 4. Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society (Washington, DC: Spectrum Edu- cational Enterprises, 1984). 5. K. Nelson and R. R. Nelson, “On the Na- ture and Evolution of Human Know-How,” Research Policy 31 (2002): 719–33. 6. Hubert Dreyfus, Stuart E. Dreyfus, and Tom Athanasiou, Mind over Machine: The Power of Human Intuition and Expertise in the Era of the Computer (New York: Free Press, 2000); Stuart E. Dreyfus, and Hubert L. Dreyfus, A Five-Stage Model of the Mental Activities Involved in Directed Skill Acquisition (Berkeley: Operations Research Center, University of California, 1980). 7. Richard R. Nelson and Sidney G. Win- ter, An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univer- sity Press, 1982). 8. Paul N. Edwards and Gabrielle Hecht, “History and the Technopolitics of Identity: The Case of Apartheid South Africa,” Jour- nal of Southern African Studies 36, no. 3 (2010): 619–39. 9. Gabrielle Hecht, The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity after World War II (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998). 10. Stewart Joy, “The Kombi-Taxi in South African Cities,” Fourth International Con- ference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport (1995): 268–76. 11. Consultancy African Intelligence, “The Minibus Taxi Industry in South Africa: A Servant for the Urban Poor?,” Polity.org. za, 2013, http://www.polity.org.za/article/ the-minibus-taxi-industry-in-south-africa- a-servant-for-the-urban-poor-2013-05-06 12. Steven Robins, “The 2011 Toilet Wars in South Africa: Justice and Transition between the Exceptional and the Every- day after Apartheid,” Development and Change 45, no. 3 (2014): 479–501. mans can best adapt to and mitigate these risks. This is the scale at which we can—and must—act. The 2015 WEF report, presented in Davos in January 2016, put the impact of water crises as the number-one global risk facing humanity over the next decade. Water is global connec- tor: Two billion people will be devastat- ed by 2050 1 —four billion in 2080 2 —if we continue with our current practices of water mismanagement on all scales, over-extraction and pollution. Of all the disasters that occur worldwide, 90 percent are water related. 3 Add- ed to this is the fact that 50 percent of the earth’s aquifers—nature’s own groundwater storage capacity—are now beyond the tipping point, meaning that a natural recovery has become impossible. Global urbanization may provide us with growth, prosperity, emancipation, and development op- portunities, but climate change, rising sea levels, and the increasing impact these risks carry puts huge pressure on our cities, societies, and citizens. If we don’t act, the economic, social, and environmental system this all hinges upon will collapse, leaving us as vic- tims of our own failure to seize a last window of opportunity. Water is at the heart of this uncer- tain future. It is through water that we feel the impact of climate change most forcefully. 4 Water is essential for our economy and our social and cultur- al well-being. Water quality defines our economic prosperity and, in turn, water provision determines the level of vulnerability for our societies: it is key for agriculture, food, and energy In 2012, Rebuild by Design was inaugurated as a new kind of design competition, aiming to combine pub- lic-private collaboration whilst setting a new standard for resilient devel- opment. Its developer, Henk Ovink, explains the approach behind the initiative, part of President Obama’s Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force, and identifies six key lessons that can be learnt from the project. Contemporary Context The annual Global Risks Percep- tion Survey released by the World Economic Forum (WEF) repeatedly proves the increase in frequency and impact of environmental risks such as climate change, water crises, bio- diversity loss, ecosystem collapse, extreme weather events, and natural and man-made catastrophes. At the same time, these risks demonstrate a clear and strong interdependency on the regional and metropolitan scale. While this larger scale may multiply these risks’ complexity and impact, this is also the scale at which we hu- Transformative Capacity of Resilience: Learning from Rebuild by Design Henk Ovink In 2012, Rebuild by Design was in ugurated as new kind of desig competition, aiming to combine public-private collaboration whilst setting a new standard for resilient development. Its developer, Henk Ovink, explains the approach behind the initiative, part of President Obama’s Hurricane Sand Rebuilding Task Force, and identifies six key lessons that can be learnt from the project.