15 The project must exhibit a sensible use and manage- ment of natural resources throughout its life cycle, including operation and maintenance. Long-term environmental concerns, whether pertaining to flows of material or energy, should be an integral part of the built structure. Natural climatic controls, such as passive cooling and cross-ventilation, are integrated into the design to such a degree that the building can do without mechanical cooling systems. The façade’s polycarbonate panels capture solar heat gain and minimize heat loss between the interior, programmed spaces and the exterior. A rack and rail mechanism controls 50% of the polycarbonate façade. The façade’s operability allows the user to manually regulate the building’s interior climate. The combination of both a robust and a light- weight structure is central to the building’s ability to respond to changes in program, thus decreasing the probability of future grey energy. The Nantes School of Architecture achieves relatively dense land use. Given that the Île de Nantes is located in the city center, the project’s choice of site consolidates the city’s urban development as opposed to development in its periphery.